Hyperemesis Gravidarum: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment
Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is experienced by a lot of women under a milder form known as morning sickness. This “severe morning sickness” can be dangerous thing for the mother and fetus if it isn`t treated accordingly. Let`s find out together which are the characteristic symptoms, how it`s diagnosed and treated.
Table of Contents
What Is Hyperemesis Gravidarum?
HG is medical problem characterized by severe nausea, vomiting, weight loss and electrolyte imbalance that affect a percentage between 0.5 – 2% of pregnant women. In mild cases changes in diet are sufficient to relieve the symptoms; instead more severe cases may lead to malnutrition and other serious complications for both the mother and child.
It seems that most women (70% – 80%) experience a form of morning sickness. The signs for this complication occur between 4 and 6 weeks of pregnancy and are exacerbated between weeks 9 and 13, with a slight improvement between weeks 14 – 20, although 20% of women confront with it until childbirth. There is no known cure for this medical condition, but there are ways of improving the associated symptoms.
The exact cause isn`t yet known, but some studies have associated its appearance with the hCG hormone produced by the placenta. This hormone occurs in large amounts during pregnancy, constantly doubling along with the pregnancy evolution, and it`s useful even for a the result of a pregnancy test to become positive.
Also, there were several risk factors identified that may contribute to the occurrence of this medical complication:
- Ectopic pregnancy (the hormonal levels are more increased in a obvious way).
- Family history of HG (sister or mother).
- Medical history of motion sickness or migraines.
- A preexisting liver disease.
- First pregnancy.
- An increased consumption of animal fats.
- The age of the mother of 35 years old.
- Specific fetal abnormalities (Down syndrome).
Signs & Symptoms
- Severe nausea & morning sickness.
- Aversion to food.
- Weight loss of 5% or more (from the previous pregnancy weight).
- Reducing the amount of urine eliminated (which may cause ketosis – a disturbance in the equilibrium of pH which results from the excessive presence/accumulation of ketones and constipation).
- Excessive fatigue.
- Loss of skin elasticity.
- Rapid heartbeat.
- Anxiety/secondary depression.
Also, it was noticed:
- Nutritional imbalances, like vitamins B1, B6 or B12.
- Metabolic imbalanced, such as ketoacidosis ( a very dangerous medical condition characterized by decrease of body alkaline reserve in the blood)
- Thyrotoxicosis (all signs of hyperthyroidism).
- Difficulties in the achievement of daily activities.
- State of pronounced stress.
- Hypersalivation (excessive saliva).
A lot of women are influenced by certain odors from the environment that exacerbates the symptoms. – More info!
The physical examination needs to evaluate:
- Vital signs, including blood pressure and pulse.
- Body status (the state of mucous membranes, skin appearance, veins).
- Mental status.
- General appearance (nutrition, weight).
- Evaluation of the thyroid, abdomen, heart and neurological.
- Urinalysis (to identify ketosis).
- Serum levels of electrolytes and ketones.
- Liver enzymes and levels of bilirubin.
- Levels of amylase/lipase.
- Thyroid stimulating hormone.
- Levels of thyroxine.
- Urine culture.
- Level of calcium.
- Hematocrit level.
- A panel for hepatitis.
Read more about Amenorrhea (Water Breaking): What to Do if this Happens!
Additionally, there may be used additional methods of diagnosis to exclude other diseases with similar symptoms (hormonal, digestive, urinary problems), such as:
- Ultrasounds (for multiple pregnancy or trophoblastic disease, for the evaluation of the pancrease and bile).
- MRI (for appendicitis).
- Endoscopy (if there are abdominal pains or gastrointestinal bleeding).
For mild forms, during the first phase is required a change of diet, which will include:
- Toast, biscuits or bananas before getting out of bed.
- The consumption of foods/drinks with ginger
- Frequent and small meals (without starving or feeling full).
- A diet rich in proteins, complex carbs and fat foods.
- Fade, dry foods.
- An increased intake of water.
- Acupressure at the wrist (either with the finger or special bracelet for those with motion sickness).
- Anti-emetic medication (only at the doctor`s recommendation who must also take into consideration the risks).
In more severe cases when hospitalization it`s necessary, it will be turned to fluids intravenously (to restore hydration, the level of electrolytes, vitamins and minerals) or feeding through a tube which can be nasogastric (inserted through the nose to the stomach) or endoscopic (passing through the stomach, surgery being necessary).
Medication may include metoclopramide, antihistamines and anti-reflux drugs or even corticosteroids. It`s also necessary bed rest, with the mention that there may be muscle weakness and weight loss in case of prolonged stay. – Read more!
One could resort to herbal remedies, like ginger or mint, homeopathic remedies or even hypnosis, but the doctor`s approval is essential (these remedies might prove to be useful or on the contrary, harmful). Usually, there are also vitamins prescribed (pyridoxine). In extreme cases, if the life of the pregnant woman is threatened, the pregnancy can be terminated.
First of all, you shouldn`t feel guilty for the symptoms experienced because it`s not up to you. However, you could share what you feel with your partner, family or friends to be supported in your daily responsibilities. Accept the cravings you may experience and avoid foods/odors that you don`t like (usually cigarette smoke, perfumes, fried foods, paint, gasoline). Consume foods rich in nutrients, fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, foods low in fat and avoid fatty or spicy foods, caffeinated drinks and fast food. Try to stay hydrated by consuming lot of liquids or even resorting to ice cubes. Rest as much as possible (because fatigue can worsen nausea or vomiting and, if you feel up for it, you can try walking outdoors or light physical exercises.
In light situations, Hyperemesis gravidarum isn`t harmful for the baby. However, in other cases, this complication may lead to baby born underweighted, premature birth, weight loss and nutritional deficiencies in the mother (which in turn affects fetal development). Some studies have found that the baby may suffer later from diabetes, neuropsychiatric disorders or heart diseases.
In addition, various medical conditions might occur, like preeclampsia or Mallory-Weiss syndrome due to excessive vomiting, Wernicke encephalopathy (causes disorientation, confusion and even coma from lack of thiamine) or deep vein thrombosis (a blood clot located in the deep veins). HG may be prevented by hydration, constant movement and administration of heparin.
In the end, keep in mind that if Hyperemesis gravidarum is diagnosed and treated in time, the pregnancy may evolve normally, without any future problems.