What Are The Causes Of Miscarriage?
A miscarriage in early pregnancy is so common that the doctors consider it a normal part of the process of reproduction. Still, the loss of a pregnancy isn`t an event easy to overcome!
Trisha Thompson has shared her own experience for Psychology Today, telling that after a few months from the birth of her son, she decided to become pregnant again because she wanted her little ones to be both of close age. Her desire was accomplished when her son had 13 months, but before being able to share the news to her husband who was left out of the country, she suffered a miscarriage. “The pregnancy had 5 weeks and if I didn`t knew that we are trying to have another baby, I wouldn`t even noticed that I`m pregnant” tells us the young woman who was marked by this event. The obstetrician told her that around 15% of the known pregnancies, and even half of all pregnancies, end up by miscarriage in the first trimester of pregnancy. Even though her doctor tried to explain her that the miscarriage didn`t occurred because of her, it was very hard for Trisha to overcome that loss.
Read more on How Soon Can You Get Pregnant After A Miscarriage?
If you had a miscarriage, perhaps you want to find out what happened and what is there to do to avoid going through the same situation again. At first, you should relax because if you remained pregnant once, there are 80% chances to have a new pregnancy from which to result a healthy baby, according to Dr. Henry Lerner, a gynecologist from the Harvard University School of Medicine. The next step is to accept the fact that is possible to never find out why that pregnancy stopped from evolving.
Most of the time, miscarriage is an isolated event and it isn`t really possible to find out the cause why a miscarriage repeated. When women who have 2 or 3 miscarriages are concerned (recurrent miscarriages), they discover that they have a medical issue which stops their pregnancy from developing in a healthy manner, but again, in the case of recurrent miscarriages as well, the cause is unknown in half of the cases.
Trisha tells us that although she never got to find the reason for which she experienced a miscarriage, 2 months after this happened she got pregnant again and gave birth to a healthy child who has been born 2 weeks after the anniversary of her first child.
The following causes represent some of the most frequent reasons why miscarriages or recurrent miscarriages happen.
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Dr. Bryan Cowan from the University in Mississippi tells us the chromosomal malformations are the cause for 60% of miscarriages. – Find out more!
Chromosomes are nothing more than microscopic structures which every cell, which contain genes. Each human being has 23 pairs of chromosomes, one set from his father and another one from his mother. On occasion, when the ovum and sperm meet, one of them has a specific defect which prevents the chromosomes from aligning in the proper way. In this situation, the embryo that results experiences some chromosomal anomalies and generally the pregnancy won`t develop anymore. It often happens for women who experience recurrent miscarriages to discover from genetic testing that they suffer from chromosomal malformations that don`t really affect them in any way other than making it impossible for the pregnancy to develop.
If you experienced a miscarriage, be patient! Chances are in your favor – you`ll remain pregnant again and you`ll most likely give birth to a healthy baby. Still, if you lose a second pregnancy, you should take into account a genetic testing of the aborted embryo. If it turns out he hasn`t suffered from chromosomal malformations, you may start looking for other causes that may be responsible for your miscarriage.
Uterine Abnormalities & Cervical Incompetence
If you have a uterus with an abnormal form, miscarriage may occur due to either the fact that the embryo cannot be implanted or it isn`t fed sufficiently. According to some experts, 10% of miscarriages are caused by uterine malformations. Cervical insufficiency or incompetence may be another issues at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy, the embryo has grown pretty much in that the cervix becomes weak and prominent in the vagina, and it cannot keep the fetus.
Read more on When Is It too Late to Get an Abortion?
There`s the possibility that the doctor might not find this until you have recurrent miscarriages. However, the good news is that the uterine septum can be surgically corrected, and if you may suffer from cervical insufficiency, the doctor may advise you to perform an intervention known as a cervical cerclage that will keep the cervix closed.
“When you realize that the woman`s body looks at spermatozoids as foreign bodies, it`s amazing that a pregnancy can even happen,” says Dr. Scher. Most of the times, a fertilized egg sends the message to the mother and asks her not to treat it in the same fashion as a microbe, and then the actual pregnancy develops without any incident. However, there are also moments when the embryo isn`t accepted by the body of the mother and is attacked by antiphospholipid antibodies, which are responsible for a lot of miscarriages that doctors used to consider them inexplicable until now.
There weren`t too many studies performed by now, the treatments still being in the phase of experiments. However, Dr. Scher has some kind of success when treating his patients with steroids, aspirin and heparin. – More info!
Untreated Illnesses (Thyroid Problems, Uncontrolled Diabetes)
Uncontrolled diabetes and thyroid disorders are often associated with “unfavorable” uterine environments. According to Dr. Scher, the effects of these medical conditions make the survival of the difficult embryo.
To prevent these issues, make the changes recommended by your doctor and follow his treatment to keep your diabetes under control. Thyroid disorders are frequently corrected with drugs.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (SOP)
Dr. Scher says it has recently been found that SOP is among the most common reasons for recurrent miscarriages. Women with this syndrome have a high testosterone level which, among a few other things, produces menstrual periods and irregular ovulations. “Even for those women who don`t really suffer from diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome produces insulin resistance which prevents the endometrium from developing in a correct manner,” says Dr. Scher. He also estimates that 5% to 10% of women of childbearing age experience this syndrome.
Still, it has been discovered that oral anti-diabetic drugs, like metformin have been successful in reducing the risk of miscarriage in women who suffer from this syndrome.
Lots of microorganisms live in the reproductive tract of both men as well as women without putting their health in danger. Still, there are bacteria which may cause health issues, which include miscarriage. Two of these are ureaplsma urealyticum and mycoplasma hominis; they typically live in the genital tract of both men and women, but they may increase the risk of miscarriage. When women are concerned, infections with this type of bacteria may cause endometrial inflammation that makes embryo development quite impossible. The infection has no symptoms, so the only method of finding out if you and your life partner are bearers is to test yourself.
Lifestyle Bad Habits (Smoking, Alcohol, Drugs)
Dr. Scher says that “nicotine passes through the placenta and intervenes in the fetal development and bloodstream processes.” Smokers have twice as much chances of losing their pregnancy than women who don`t smoke. By consuming more than 2 drinks that contain alcohol a day will increase the miscarriage risk, and the consumption of recreational drugs has kind the same effect. Last but not least, women who work in particular kind of environment – dental clinics, clinical labs, farms, or operating theaters – are more prone to experience a miscarriage for unknown reasons.
What is there to do? Dr. Lerner advises to quit any bad habits of such nature before attempting to conceive a baby, so you can enjoy high chances of achieving a healthy pregnancy.