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What Is Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy?

What is laparoscopic cholecystectomy? Cholecystectomy is a medical procedure about which you will want to know more if you may need to go through such an experience.

What Is Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy?

Cholecystectomy is a surgical procedure which involves the removal of the biliary vesicle, a para-shaped organ from under the liver.

The biliary vesicle has the function of collecting and storing the bile –digestive fluid produced by the liver. Cholecystectomy might be required if a person will experience pain from the presence of bile calculi that is obstructing the bile`s flow.

Cholecystectomy is an easy procedure with a very minor risk of complication. In most cases, patients can return home at the same day.

Cholecystectomy involves incisions in which a tool with a minuscule camera is inserted at one end to see the inside of the abdomen and 4 other small incisions will introduce surgical tools to for removing the vesicle biliary.

This is laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In certain cases, a larger incision may be required in the right part of the superior abdomen to remove the bladder. – Additional info!

Anatomy & Physiology

The bile circulates through the gallbladder ciliary channel and reaches the liver duct where the common bile duct forms. Then, the common bile duct will be emptied into the small intestine`s small part. The biliary vesicle`s main goal is to concentrate and store the bile. This will release the bile through the common bile duct in the small intestine when you consume fatty foods. The bile aids the digestion of fatty foods. However, anyone is able to live without gallbladder without any issues or discomfort.

Symptoms

  • Pain in the right part of the upper abdomen (right hippocampus) and the head of the chest (epigastrum).
  • Nausea, bile-like vomiting.
  • Bitter taste, mostly in the morning.
  • Headache.
  • Bloating.

Complications which might occur as a result of vesicular lithiasis are:

  • Infections – acute/chronic cholecystitis.
  • Migrants – mechanical iterators; acute pancreatitis.
  • Perforative –peritonitis; subhepatic abscess; gallstone
  • Neoplasms – biliary bladder cancer.

All of these complications require cholecystectomy, but in these stages, the doctor will decide if laparoscopic chelcystectomy (with small incisions) can be achieved. Performing on-time surgery is preferred and recommended from the first signs, with evidence of vesicular lithiasis.

Why Do You Have your Gallbladder Removed?

  • Smaller pains.
  • Shorter period of hospitalization.
  • Aesthetically pleasing appearance.
  • Shorter period of recovery.

Due to these benefits, surgeons advise patients for laparoscopic interventions, but the prescribing physican will decide the type of intervention depending on the condition of the patient and the gallbladder disease.

How Big Is a Gall Bladder?

The gallbladder is more like a hollow organ which is located beneath the liver`s right lobe. When adults are concerned, the gallbladder is of around 8 cm in length and around 4 cm in diameter. The gallbladder`s capacity is of around 100 ml. – Read more!

Treatment

  • Classical removal of the biliary vesicle can be achieved by an open cholecystecomy, which involves an incision which is made on the right side of the upper abdomen. Then the gallbladder will be removed, detaching from its surrounding structures.

This type of surgery is performed in difficult or dangerous cases where laparscopic cholecystectomy cannot be performed, cases involving technical difficulties due to dense abdominal adhesions resulted from previous surgeries, inflamed biliary vesicle or when biliary vesicle `s anatomy isn`t visible through a laparoscope.

The period of recovery and hospital admission takes around 4 – 5 days. In some situations, biliary calculi that obstruct the common bile duct can be eliminated by exploring the common biliary duct following open surgery.

  • Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the most commonly used surgery to relieve issues of the gallbladder. The laparoscope is a long tube, which at one end contains a light source with a camcorder connected to a screen. Using this system, the surgeon is able to visualize the abdomen during the intervention.

Before the intervention, intravenous antibiotics are recommended to reduce the infection rate. After anesthesia, an antiseptic solution will be applied to the incisions along with a few small incisions (around 3 or 4 incisions) will be made in the abdominal wall. Then a special needle will be inserted into the abdomen for the abdominal distension with carbon dioxide gas, which will create the space required for the insertion of the instruments.

The laparoscope and other long laparoscopic tools will be inserted through the abdominal incisions. The whole intervention will then be performed while the surgeon views the enlarged image of the internal organs using a screen. The bile vesicle will be detached from the surrounding structures. The ciliary channel which attaches the bile to the common bile duct will be dissected and caught in several metal clips.

In some cases, a small catheter could be inserted through the cystic channel to inject the contrast substance to be seen in x-ray radiographs if there were stones that may have obdurate the common bile duct. If bile ducts are present, they may be removed by the laparoscopic exploration of the bile duct via the abdominal opening or retrograde endoscopic colangiopancreatography. – Click here!

Once the ciliary channel is divided, the biliary vesicle will be dissected and the small arteries supplying the blood to the biliary vesicle will be trapped with metal clips. The biliary vesicle is then detached from the liver and will try to avoid spilling the bile into the abdominal cavity.

Complications

The incidence of complications after a cholecystectomy is relatively low and includes:

  • Complications involving general anesthesia.
  • Post-surgery bleeding.
  • Lesions of the bile ducts or hepatic artery from the right.
  • Bile leakage.
  • Wound infection
  • Injuries to other abdominal organs.
  • Pulmonary embolism.
  • Profound venous thrombosis.
  • Respiratory or urinary infections.
Image courtesy of Medicalexhibits.com
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