The male reproductive system is very complex, and male genital organs are often likely to infectious or traumatic diseases. Most of them occur during sports activities practiced by men (soccer, cycling), work activities (chemical exposure, excessive physical effort) or falls. Genital injuries determine acute and intense pains that most of the times eventually disappear, and don`t require medical treatment or hospitalization. However, infectious pathologies shouldn`t be neglected.
Among the most common diseases and medical conditions of the male reproductive system are: penile lesions, urethral secretions of the penis, intrascrotal swelling, hematospermia, swollen glands or priapism.
Table of Contents
- 1 Traumatic Pathology
- 2 Non Traumatic Pathologies
- 2.1 Testicular Cancer
- 2.2 Testicular Torsion
- 2.3 Priapism
- 2.4 Varicocele
- 2.5 Balanitis
- 2.6 Prostate Issues
- 2.7 Infertility
- 2.8 Problems of the Scrotal Area
- 2.9 Problems Related to the Genital Foreskin
- 2.10 Hypospadias
- 2.11 Cryptorchidism (Hidden Testicles)
- 2.12 Inguinal Hernia
- 2.13 Endometriosis
- 2.14 Renal Lithiasis
- 2.15 Sebaceous Cyst
- 3 Infectious Pathologies
Due to their location, male genital organs are prone to the risk of occurrence of diverse pathologies, both infectious and traumatic. The most frequent occur:
- During sports activities: soccer, cycling;
- During work activities: exposure to irritant chemical substances;
- Due to some trauma from falling.
Genital spasm lesions usually lead to serious pain, which most of the times disappear without leaving sequelae. Minor trauma or uncomplicated diseases don`t require hospitalization, only ambulatory treatment, but serious complications with local swelling, hematoma, bruising or pruritus require urgent medical presentation or more complex treatment.
Non Traumatic Pathologies
Another issues faced by men represents testicular cancer, which occurs in the testicles from different causes, most of the time unknown. The symptoms of testicular cancer include lower abdominal pain, scrotum, and swelling or the occurrence of a cystic formation in the testicle. After a consultation with an experts (general practitioner, oncologist or urologist), a thorough examination will be done and a proper treatment form will be established. This may also include surgery.
It occurs when the testicle and the spermatic cord twist, which leads to the interruption of testicular vascularisation and constitute also a medical emergency. The testicle can also be saved and its whole restored function, if you present to the doctor in the first 4 to 6 hours; otherwise, you risk losing it.
This condition is manifested by a prolonged and painful penis erection, which might not have any relation to sexual desire. Priapism is more frequently encountered in young adults, and lifestyle or genetics aren`t important factors. This persistent penis erection occurs for 4 hours or even longer, no matter if any sexual arousal exists or not. As mentioned, this medical condition is generally painful, and it needs immediate treatment and hospitalization in order to avoid any permanent damage to the erectile penile tissues.
This is an enlargement of the veins within the loose skin bag which holds the scrotum. Varicoceles are rather similar to varicose veins you may see on your legs. This condition represents a common cause of a reduced quality of sperm and a low production of sperm, which may lead to infertility. It might be surgically corrected in case of any discomfort. – Read more!
This represents an inflammation of the penile head and foreskin. The condition is more frequently encountered in children, and genetics isn`t an important factor. Unfortunately, not being circumcised represents a risk factor. When this medical condition is concerned, the penile head and foreskin become sore, inflamed and itchy. Additionally, there might be a discharge, as well as a rash might develop.
Prostate problems represent another pathology that most adult males fight against. Therefore, an inflammation of the gland may occur, as well as prostate cancer or benign prostatic hypertrophy. Prostatitis is usually caused by bacteria and is experienced by colds, increased urination frequency, fever, pain, and is treated with antibiotics.
Male infertility might develop due to genetic factors which may cause an absent or low production of sperm, a hormonal imbalance which may interfere with the production of sperm, or a blockage in the duct system. As mentioned above, a medical condition known as varicocele, in which the scrotum`s veins become enlarged, may lead to infertility as well. These particular veins aid cool warm blood that flows into the scrotum, where the production of sperm very much depends on a decreased temperature. When the flow of blood in the veins is slow, then the scrotum will heat up and interfere with the production of sperm.
Problems of the Scrotal Area
They include the occurrence of a fluid collection around one or both testicles (hydrocele) or a caliber enlargement by twisting veins from the scrotum. Usually, these are minor issues and which with proper treatment can be solved without sequelae.
Problems Related to the Genital Foreskin
- Phimosis, a situation where the offset is difficult and rather painful, sometimes even impossible due to a tight preload;
- Paraphimosis, the reverse situation; it`s a complication of phimosis, occurred by a forced offset, when the foreskin cannot be restored to its initial position and compresses the balano-preputial shaft.
This is a birth defect in which the opening of the urethra is anywhere below the tip of the penis instead of at the tip of the penis. The urethra represents the tube through which urine will drain from the bladder and will exit the body.
Cryptorchidism (Hidden Testicles)
A medical condition represented by a lack of descent of either one or both testicles into the scrotum. If this isn`t corrected, generally by surgery, it may lead to increased risk of testicular cancer and sterility. It`s considered the most common congenital abnormality of the male reproductive system. Around 30% of premature babies and 3% of full-term babies are generally born with at least one hidden testicle.
It happens when an intestinal bite is engaged through the inguinal canal. The exteriorization is obvious in the situations that increase pressure in the abdominal cavity, like sneezing, crying, physical effort or coughing.
Endometriosis appears when bits of the endometrium grow on different pelvic organs, like the fallopian tubes or ovaries. Outside the uterus, this tissue that lines the uterus bleeds and thickens, just as the typical endometrium does during the process of the menstrual cycle.
Fatigue, bloating, abdominal pains and menstrual cramps can easily be ignored by just about any woman out there. However, all this can be symptoms of endometriosis, an illness caused by the occurrence of benign tumors inside the tissue of the uterus, affecting around 3 out of 10 women.
Calculus is formed by the precipitation and crystalization of various minerals, like magnesium, phosphorus or calcium. Typical kidney colic is generally produced by mobile calculi, those who remain at the place of formation are often asymptomatic. Renal colic occurs because of the irritation of the nerve endings by the migrating calculus, and is characterized by a continuous and intense pain or aggravation episodes.
It`s a prominent formation, full of caseous secretion which may develop in the scrotum by the obstruction of the sebaceous glands of drainage associated with hair follicles at this level. This will block the sebum excretion which accumulates in the gland`s canal, causing the volume increase.
Infections may affect various regions of the genital area, which include:
- Testicles (orchitis);
- Epidydimis (epididymitis);
- Urethra (urethritis);
- Urinary bladder (cystitis);
- Hair follicles (abscesses);
- The entire genital area (Fournier gangrene).
Chlamydia trachomatis is to be held accountable and shouldn`t be neglected as it can lead to PID and sterility. This infection is the most common STD and is taken by direct contact. Gonorrhea also falls into this category. If left untreated, it may lead to severe issues, which include heart rhythm disorders.
Genital itching (genital pruritus) may be a sign of lots of medical conditions, which may include jock itch. This itching might be the cause of STDs, allergic reactions or skin irritations.
In lots of cases, genital itching which is the cause of irritation will disappear on its own as soon as the irritation gets removed. However, other causes might need intensive treatment. If you are worried that your condition doesn`t just go away on its away, get in touch with your health care professional.